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Why the Douay-Rheims is the Best Bible
Firstly, some simple considerations:
The monastic Catholic scribes were responsible for getting the Bible (St. Jerome's Vulgate) to us. They would be anxious if they could see the lack of fidelity to accuracy in almost every modern Biblical translations.
For many years, it was the tireless scribing of the monks that preserved the texts of the Bible before the invention of the printing press. Once presses were available, the Bible was translated into many languages and many people could have a copy. In recent years there have been many new translations in English for various reasons. The older English has been updated into the current vernacular as spoken today. Other versions have been made to take out language with a male emphasis.
Each new version that comes out gives more opportunity to slant the translation to the liking of the translator. With such frequent changes, many of the original texts have been changed dramatically from their original intent and meaning. The faithful should be aware that these changes are being made to water down the original intent. Sometimes it would be a good exercise to compare the old text with the most recent translation. The changes in meaning would then be very clear how different they are. If we follow the original, undiluted text we will be able to keep God's word intact.
With new Biblical translations that have come out recently, changes have been made that are not divine in origin but are man-made. There are some in different quarters who want God's word translated to fit their itching ears. They are not satisfied with the way God's inspired word was given, so they have changed it to fit their fancy. Little by little, people in authority are giving way to those with the loudest complaint. Many are still uncomfortable with God's words, because His Will limits their lifestyles. To be a faith-filled person, it requires giving up of one's will to God. It is hard for one to take orders from another, and man wants to control his life...
There have been many approved translations of the Bible, but some recent English translations have been quite liberal in changing the meaning of certain texts. One example is Matthew 16:26: "For what doth it profit a man, if he gain the whole world, and suffer the loss of his own soul?" in older translations compared to the newer translation of "What profit would there be for one to gain the whole world and forfeit his life?" This difference may seem slight, but soul can be much different than one's earthly life.
The Jews kept their scrolls of Scripture wrapped up in a safe place, as they all had to be hand-written before our printing presses came into being. We do not realize how fortunate we are to have the Old and New Testaments available in our Bible (and yet we should read it more often than most people, who do not read it)...
Because they are the finest literal translations, the Douay-Rheims Bible and the Vulgate Bible have Sacred Scripture wrapped up in safe places, unlike almost every other translation. The Bible has been tampered with in the loose translations, which are not, therefore, in tune with the true teaching of the Bible or of the Church on Biblical translation. In sum, the word of God can never be adjusted by mankind to suit its needs. Sacred Scripture comes from God through the sacred authors. This is why you want to have and read the Douay-Rheims Bible and/or study the Vulgate Bible.
Lastly, some more complex considerations:
Translations of the Catholic Bible must be faithful to the original texts; loose translation is not acceptable. Literal (as word-for-word as possible) translation, also known as the "formal equivalence" method, is the only acceptable, faithful way to translate the Bible, and this is how the Latin Vulgate and the Douay-Rheims versions were translated.
In general, the many modern translations today – while going back to the original Biblical languages as directed by the Church in Divino Afflante Spiritu and in the Dogmatic Constitution on Divine Revelation (Dei Verbum) – employ the "dynamic equivalence" ("sense-for-sense," "meaning-for-meaning," or "thought-for-thought") method of translation – a Pandora's box that Modernist translators have unfortunately taken full advantage of – which is not consistent with what the Church or the Bible teach regarding Biblical translation (see below). In general, the modern translations of the Catholic Bible simply do not have fidelity to accuracy, taught as essential by St. Jerome, the greatest Biblical translator of all time, who said in reference to Biblical commentary (but which is equally true of Biblical translation): "[the] office of a commentator is to set forth not what he himself would prefer, but what his author says" [Ad Pammachium].
Let us bring the Catholic Bible up to today… If literal translation had not been employed, the original wording (and consequently the meaning) of Biblical texts would have disappeared quickly. So the conclusion is that translations that are not literal serve to further weaken the integrity of the original text. Without exception, all translations, no matter how literal or faithful they are to the original, lose some of their accuracy going from one language to another. Therefore, the ONLY way to maintain the integrity of a Biblical text is to translate it literally.
Literal translation is commanded in the Bible itself three times (Deuteronomy 4:2, Proverbs 30:5-6, and Apocalypse 22:18-19 [these two verses apply to the whole of Scripture as well as the Apocalypse – the Fathers of the Church would certainly agree with this]; possibly even in Jeremias 26:2), and tampering with Scripture is condemned in 2 Corinthians 4:2. Literal translation was strongly encouraged - to say the least - by Pope Pius XII in his encyclical Divino Afflante Spiritu (23), it was employed by St. Jerome (Divino Afflante Spiritu, 9), and it was exalted by the Church's Council of Trent.
Here is what the Council of Trent taught: the Vulgate, “which has been preserved by the Church for so many centuries is to be regarded as authentic in public readings, disputations, sermons, and expositions, and let no one dare or presume to reject it on any grounds” (Fourth Session, "Decree on the Vulgate Edition of the Bible and on the Manner of Interpreting Sacred Scripture," April 8, 1546). This teaching was reaffirmed in 1943 by Pope Pius XII in his encyclical Divino Afflante Spiritu in which he teaches: the Council of Trent "rightly declared to be preferable that which ‘had been approved by its long-continued use for so many centuries in the Church.’ Hence this special authority or as they say, authenticity of the Vulgate was not affirmed by the Council particularly for critical reasons, but rather because of its legitimate use in the Churches throughout so many centuries; by which use indeed the same is shown, in the sense in which the Church has understood and understands it, to be free from any error whatsoever in matters of faith and morals" (Section 21).
Therefore, it can be said – owing to the aforementioned guarantee – that the Douay-Rheims Bible is indeed the safest, most traditional and most trustworthy English translation of the Bible.
Probably the field of theology most affected by the heresy of Modernism – thoroughly condemned by the Church in 1907 – during this last century or so has been Biblical scholarship. Now, non-literal translation and the dangerous historical-critical method of Biblical exegesis (by which some claim Sacred Scripture to be the word of man, full of myth, not really having historicity, merely conditioned by the time in which it was written, etc.) have become the rule with many, many Scripture scholars and teachers. (The historical-critical method of Biblical exegesis is taught in most Catholic colleges and universities, which has been eroding the Tradition of Faith a great while now.)
Let’s examine more examples of how dangerous non-literal translation is. Here are just a couple. In the Douay-Rheims Bible, Isaias 7:14b reads: "Behold a virgin shall conceive, and bear a son, and his name shall be called Emmanuel." One popular Catholic Bible translates it thusly: "the young woman, pregnant and about to bear a son, shall name him Emmanuel." This latter translation is very poor because it breaks the linkage of the two verses by conflicting with its own translation of Matthew 1:23: “'Behold, the virgin shall be with child and bear a son, and they shall name him Emmanuel,' which means 'God is with us.'” There is no such confusion in the Douay-Rheims, which, of course, translates both of these verses with "virgin." Furthermore, “virgin” must be used to be faithful to Matthew 1:23, which quotes Isaias 7:14. The modern translation of “young woman” here, again, is untraditional and unhelpful: “virgin” is also important because it reinforces the second Marian dogma, the Perpetual Virginity of Mary.
Another example is Genesis 3:15: “I will put enmities between thee and the woman, and thy seed and her seed: she shall crush thy head, and thou shalt lie in wait for her heel.” This traditional translation, “she shall crush thy head,” has been authenticated in the very popular images of Her as Our Lady of Grace (appearing, of course, on the Miraculous Medal as well) in the approved private revelation at Rue du Bac to St. Catherine Laboure, and in the approved private revelation at Guadalupe to St. Juan Diego. (In Aztec, it seems the best translation of “Guadalupe” is “she will crush the serpent of stone.” This reality can be seen visibly in that image as well in the black moon on which She stands.) This interpretation is the most valid one in light of Her role in John 2:4 and, above all, in Apocalypse 12:1-6 and 12:13-17: the “Woman” and the devil as mortal enemies are bookends of the Bible. It only makes sense to refer to Her in Genesis 3:15 using “she.” Also, the correct and consistent use of the feminine in all these verses provides the solid Mariological preparation for John 19:26, which serves as the basis for the Catholic doctrines (not yet dogmas) of Mary as Co-redemptrix, and therefore as Mediatrix of All Graces.
A flagrant example is in Luke 2:35; in the New American Bible Revised Edition, a clause is rendered thusly: “and you yourself a sword will pierce”. The word “soul” is in the original Greek, and hence in the Douay-Rheims translation: “And thy own soul a sword shall pierce [...].” A tree is known by its fruit; taking out a word, in this case, without excuse as it is, leads to a major difference: Our Lady was not pierced by a sword; Her soul was.
So we see in the three preceding paragraphs some examples of how literal translation (found eminently in the Douay-Rheims Bible and the Vulgate Bible) not only provides the basis for Catholic doctrine, but also protects the faithful from not understanding it more clearly in the modern translations of the Bible. Modern translators err in putting scholarship ahead of such evidence, as well as ignoring the Church’s consistent history, and even approved private revelation regarding the translation of this verse. Also, there are elements to Catholic Biblical scholarship that must be consistent. These are just a few of the serious errors in modern translations.
Finally, the orthodoxy of literal translation of the Bible is confirmed in the “Legend of the Septuagint.” The Septuagint is the 3rd century B.C. translation of the Hebrew Old Testament into Greek allegedly by 72 Jewish Biblical scholars. The legend is that the scholars were inspired and, though separated, came up with identical translations, which all were in perfect conformity with the original texts. This story has been controversial in the history of the Church (three saints who were Fathers of the Church supported the authenticity of the legend, while St. Jerome, likewise a Father of the Church, criticized it). In any case, one thing is for sure – the popular legend, true or fabricated to some degree, promotes the idea that literal translation was the only way to translate the Bible. And that has always been the thinking of Jews and Christians until recently, and now, sadly, literal translation, at least in the Church, has been almost entirely rejected.
To conclude, then, it is surprisingly easy to answer the question as to which is the best Bible:
· It has to be a literal translation – according to the teaching of the Church and the Bible itself.
· It has to have fidelity to accuracy.
The only Catholic translations that meet these criteria par excellence are the Douay-Rheims Bible and the Vulgate Bible.
The Douay-Rheims’ translation of the New Testament, for example, is the best of any English translation. Also, its style is superior; it is more majestic and poetic. And there are no modern errors in it. The Old and New Testaments triumph because they are literal, not liberal. And, as mentioned earlier, in an age of catechetical decline like ours, the words of the Council of Trent and Pope Pius XII’s doctrinal guarantee are a very important consideration until Biblical translation is completely purified of the Modernist heresy that has permeated it for so long now.
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